domingo, 28 de julio de 2013

Un perro andaluz

Que supuso está peli en la historia de España?
año 1929. cortometraje: 17 minutos. francia. director: luis buñuel. guión: buñuel, dalí. música: richard wagner. género: surrealismo. reparto: pierre batcheff, simone mareuil.
sinopsis: Filme surrealista, todo un clásico del cine de arte y ensayo, una obra única y de culto, fruto de la poderosa imaginación de dos jóvenes mentes -Buñuel tenía 29 años y Dalí 25- poseedoras de un talento tan singular como genial

es un cortometraje de diecisiete minutos, mudo  (no fue hasta la versión de 1960  que se incorporaron los motivos de tristán e isolda de  richard wagner  y un tango ), escrito, producido, dirigido e interpretado por buñuel en 1929  con la colaboración en el guion del pintor del bigote estrafalario, gracias a un presupuesto de 25.000 pesetas que aportó la madre de Luis Buñuel. Fue estrenada el 6 de junio del 29  en el estudio ursulines de parís. Posteriormente se exhibió durante nueve meses ininterrumpidamente en el studio 28 de la misma ciudad.
El rodaje duró quince días. Según refiere Buñuel a De la Colina y Pérez Turrent, Un perro andaluz nació de la confluencia de dos sueños. Dalí le contó que soñó con hormigas que pululaban en sus manos y Buñuel a su vez cómo una navaja seccionaba el ojo de alguien.


Un perro andaluz está considerada la película más significativa del cine surrealista . Transgrediendo los esquemas narrativos canónicos, la película pretende provocar un impacto moral en el espectador a través de la agresividad de la imagen. Remite constantemente al delirio y al sueño, tanto en las imágenes producidas como en el uso de un tiempo no lineal de las secuencias.

El nombre Un perro andaluz fue elegido porque no guardaba relación alguna con los temas del filme. lorca  se sintió aludido por el título, pero Buñuel negó dicha alusión, alegando que era el de un libro de poemas que él tenía escrito desde 1927. En primer lugar pensó que la película se llamara El marista en la ballesta (según el título que tenía un caligrama  de pepín bello )y luego Es peligroso asomarse al interior, como inversión del aviso que tenían los trenes franceses: C'est dangereux de se pencher au dehors ('Es peligroso asomarse al exterior').
pierre blatcheff se suicidó en 1932, unos años después de rodar el film. El mismo fin tuvo su compañera de reparto  simone beauril

La película comienza con el rótulo «Érase una vez». Un hombre (Luis Buñuel, como actor) afila una navaja de afeitar mientras observa, asomándose al balcón, cómo una filosa nube corta la luna. Del mismo modo, él secciona el ojo a una mujer.



Nuevo intertítulo: «Ocho años después». Un ciclista  (Pierre Batcheff) pedalea por una calle desierta. Está ataviado con unos estrafalarios complementos: manteles blancos, tocado de monja, una caja a rayas diagonales a modo de colgante sobre el pecho... En tanto la joven de antes, que estaba leyendo, siente algo y se levanta, tirando el libro al suelo, que se queda justo abierto en una reproducción de a encajera , de vermeer . El ciclista se detiene y cae golpeándose la cabeza bruscamente contra el canto de la acera. Ella corre escaleras abajo y lo besa frenéticamente.
De vuelta a la habitación, dispone las ropas del ciclista encima de la cama, como recomponiendo la imagen del cuerpo. Al darse la vuelta, ve al mismo hombre mirando las hormigas que surgen de un agujero negro de su mano. Mediante fundidos encadenados, se transforma en el vello axilar, un erizo de mar y en un grupo de personas que rodean a una mujer de apariencia andrógina  que tantea con un bastón una mano cortada que yace en medio de la calle. Un policía recoge la mano, se la entrega y el andrógino la mete en la caja de rayas diagonales que llevaba el ciclista. La gente se “disuelve” y un coche atropella al andrógino, dejándolo en el suelo inerte.

El hombre y la mujer han visto toda la escena desde la ventana de la habitación, y la muerte y atropello del andrógino causa al hombre una gran excitación sexual, que le lleva a perseguir a la mujer al ritmo de un tango  para acariciar sus pechos, que se funden en nalgas. Cuando le vemos, sus ojos están en blanco, su rostro en éxtasis y de su boca chorrea una baba sanguinolenta. Para defenderse ella le amenazará con una raqueta triangular, y el hombre busca algo a su vez, encontrando una cuerda en el suelo, pero al tirar de ella están atados dos trozos de corcho, dos frailes maristas  y dos pianos de cola con sendos burros putrefactos encima. La joven emprende la huida, pero al cerrar la puerta atrapa la mano del hombre de la que brotan hormigas. El cuarto al que accede la muchacha es idéntico al de antes y tumbado en la cama aparece el ciclista con los ropajes de antes.
Un nuevo rótulo indica «Hacia las tres de la madrugada». Un hombre con ademán autoritario ordena al hombre de las ropas extravagantes que las arroje por la ventana. Después, como en un castigo escolar, lo pone de cara a la pared y carga sus brazos en cruz con libros, que pronto se transforman en revólveres con los que tirotea a su doble, que cae contra la espalda desnuda de una mujer en un parque, de donde es recogido por transeúntes que por allí pasean.



La mujer entra en la habitación y ve en la pared la atropos , una mariposa cuyo tórax tiene un aspecto semejante a una calavera; y también al hombre, que carece de boca y que es sustituida por el vello de la axila que acaba de desaparecer de la de la muchacha. Esta abre la puerta y accede directamente a una agreste playa, donde aparece un nuevo joven con el que pasea, encontrando a su paso los adminículos del ciclista.
Un nuevo rótulo «En primavera» aparece sobreimpresionado en el cielo donde se ve un paisaje desierto en el que están enterrados hasta el pecho el hombre y la mujer, según concluía el guion original, «ciegos, con los vestidos desgarrados, devorados por los rayos del sol y un enjambre de insectos»
http://www.rtve.es/alacarta/videos/un-perro-andaluz/perro-andaluz/1570997/
peli restaurada por tve completa, muy buen trabajo. Lo que me gusta de tve, es que apoya a la cultura, aunque después el gobierno la esté matando, hay ahí algo de contradicción, pero historicamente la primera siempre apoyó la cultura.
En plena ebullición de las vanguardias y cuatro años después de andre bretón publicase el primer manifiesto del surrealismo, buñuel rodaba en francia un perro andaluz colaboro en el guión con su genial amigo pintor. dio como fruto una de las obras más representativas del surrealismo y está protagonizada por pierre blatcheff y simone mareuil, se llevó a cabo en 15 días. El film carece   de un hilo argumental coherente y está articulado como una sucesión de imágenes impactantes de marcada carga simbólica que suponen una exaltación del amor frente a los prejuicios sociales y religiosos.

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